Demographic Terms

Race & Ethnicity

Outside of Pacific Islanders & Native Hawaiians, I generally included the racial categories here based on the U.S. Census Bureau. I have included ethnicities that are likely to be particularly relevant in context of diversity & inclusion in the United States, but please feel free to let me know if you think another ethnicity should be included.

Race

  • White – White is not included as a subsection of race & ethnicity in these papers. Most papers, reports, articles, etc. involve locations or cultures where white people have the most privilege. However, some specific, less privileged ethnicities with high proportions of white people have been included.
  • Black – People having ancestry from Sub-Saharan Africa, including the major Black ethnicities in the USA: African-Americans, Afro-Latinx people, and Afro-Caribbeans. Because Hispanic or Latinx people are often grouped into their own race, however, many papers use only “Hispanic” or “Latino/a/x” and do not specify race.
  • Native American / American Indian, Native Alaskan, & Other Indigenous Americans – People having origins in any of the original people of North and South America. This can include people of Indigenous ancestry who may also identify as Latinx, such as some Chicano/Xicanx people, but most papers do not specify race/ancestry when describing Latinx peoples and only use “Hispanic” or “Latino/a/x.”
  • Asian & Pacific Islander – While the U.S. Census Bureau separates these two groups into Asians and Native Hawaiians & Other Pacific Islanders, most of the studies I’ve included in the database do not make such a distinction. Therefore, these two will be grouped together.

Ethnicity

  • Latinx/Hispanic – The difference between Latinx and Hispanic, if it exists, varies depending on who is asked, but as the U.S. Census Bureau and therefore most USA-based papers do not distinguish between the two terms, I have included them both here. I am also using Latinx instead of Latino/a in efforts to be gender-neutral.
  • Middle Eastern & North African – This will generally include people originating from North Africa (Egypt, Libya, Morocco, etc.), the Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, etc.), and some of Western Asia (Iran, Iraq, etc.). This includes white, Black, and Asian Middle Eastern & North African peoples.
  • Jewish – The definition of the Jewish ethnicity also vary widely, but generally Jewish will be defined as: people descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population that now occupy North Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, the Middle East , Sub-Saharan Africa, and South, East, and Central Asia.1
  • Southern European – This will generally include people originating from the Iberian, Italian, or Balkan peninsulas and the island of Malta.

Sex and Gender

At the most basic level, different sexes produce different gametes (sex cells such as sperm and eggs).2 In most sexually reproducing species, the gametes of the different sexes have different morphology, and individuals who produce “sperm” are “male” while individuals who produce “eggs” are “female.2 In humans, sex is normally determined by sex chromosomes – XY individuals are male and XX individuals are female.3 This is because the Y chromosome contains genes that are involved in testicular development, and subsequently, the development of a “male” body.3 However, there are two points that need to be made:

  1. There are a variety of ways that an individual might not align to the traditional concept of sex in humans. This is partly why, in addition to “male” and “female,” we categorize some individuals as “intersex” at birth (see below).
  2. Biological sex does not always align with gender. Gender is a social and cultural concept, not a biological one4 (although there are certainly biological factors that may contribute to the development of gender identities that do not align with the sex assigned at birth). Furthermore, some people do not feel that their gender aligns with the “man vs. woman” binary at all. Therefore, in “sex” we are only referring to the sex you’re assigned at birth based on biological features, and not the gender identity of an individual. Cisgender people identify with the gender that most often aligns with the sex assigned at birth (e.g., cisgender women are born female and identify as women). Transgender people do not identify with the gender that most often aligns with the sex they were assigned at birth (e.g., a trans man would have been assigned female at birth, but identifies as a man).

Terms

  • “Female/Women” – Most papers do not specify whether “female” or “woman” means people assigned female at birth regardless of gender identity, cisgender women specifically, or women including both cis and trans women. I therefore lumped every paper that refers to “women” or “girls” or “females” into this category as a general umbrella category.
  • Intersex – Intersex is defined here as “a group of medical diagnoses describing a person whose anatomy or physiology differs from cultural ideals of male and female in terms of external genitalia, internal genitalia, chromosomes, and/or hormone production levels.” It is listed as the “I” in the queer acronym “LGBTQIA+.”
  • “Male/Men” – As with the “Female/Women” Category above, most papers do not specify whether “male” or “men” means people assigned male at birth, cisgender men specifically, or men including both cis and trans men. I therefore lumped every paper that refers to “men” or “boys” or “males” into this category as a general umbrella category. Because men are generally most privileged in U.S. society, there are fewer papers related to men.
  • Assigned Female at Birth (AFAB) – This is only selected for papers that clearly relate to how typical female reproductive biology & endocrinology affects a given D&I issue regardless of gender identity. This includes papers related to pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as papers related to transgender medicine for AFAB people.
  • Assigned Male at Birth (AMAB) – This is only selected for papers that clearly relate to how typical male reproductive biology & endocrinology affects a given D&I issue. Most commonly this will apply to topics on transgender medicine for AMAB people.
  • Women – This is selected when the paper explicitly lays out that “women” applies to cisgender and/or transgender women. Sub-categories can be checked to further specify whether the paper relates to cis and/or trans women.
  • Men – This is selected when the paper explicitly lays out that “men” applies to cisgender and/or transgender men. Sub-categories can be checked to further specify whether the paper relates to cis and/or trans men.
  • Cisgender Women
  • Cisgender Men
  • Gender Minorities – This is selected for any paper related to trans men & women, as well as to anyone identifying as non-binary, genderfluid, agender/genderless, two-spirit, bigender, or any other gender non-conforming identity.
  • Transgender – This is selected when the paper specifically mentions “transgender” or “trans” people. It can be related to specifically trans men or trans women (with sub-categories listed below), or it can be related to transgender issues in general without relating to specifically trans women or trans men.
  • Trans men – Selected when a paper relates to issues faced by trans men specifically.
  • Trans women – Selected when a paper relates to issues faced by trans women specifically.
  • Non-binary – Selected when a paper specifically mentions “non-binary” people, or when a paper refers to “genderqueer” people without specifying any other gender identity such as those listed below.
  • Genderfluid – Selected when a paper refers to “genderfluid” people or “gender fluidity.” This means that someone’s gender identity isn’t static over time.
  • Agender / Genderless – Selected when a paper refers to “agender” people, “genderless” people, or people “lacking gender.” This can mean that someone is without gender, or that someone identifies as gender-neutral.
  • Bigender & Two-Spirit – Selected when a paper refers to “bigender” or “two-spirit” people. Bigender applies to people having two genders. Two-spirit is a term that is used by Indigenous American communities that is related to bigender, but can also be used similarly to genderfluid, non-binary, or genderqueer. The use of two-spirit is reserved only for Indigenous people.
  • Queer – An umbrella term that encompasses everyone in the LGBTQIA+ community, or anyone outside of the heterosexual, cisgender norm. This, therefore, does not always apply to a sex or gender identity.

Sexual and Romantic Orientation

  • Sexual Orientation – This is defined as “the focus” of an individual’s “sexual/erotic drives, desires, and fantasies, and the inclination or capacity to develop sexual relationships with other people.” Heterosexuality, the attraction to a different gender, is not a main focus of this database as this usually involves a man and a woman, which is the traditional and privileged sexual orientation in much of the world. Several sub-categories are included:
    • Gay / Lesbian – Having sexual and romantic attraction to the same gender as yourself. Because these terms apply to both sexual and romantic attraction and homosexual is now deemed outdated and offensive, unlike the other sexual orientations listed below, papers that mention “gay” and/or “lesbian” people are listed for both sexual and romantic orientation.
    • Bisexual – Having sexual attraction to people of the same gender as yourself and another gender. It can also mean sexual attraction to both men and women specifically regardless of your own gender, or sexual attraction to two genders other than your own.
    • Polysexual – Having sexual attraction to more than one gender. This is sometimes used to mean sexual attraction to two genders that are not the same as yours, or to mean sexual attraction to three or more genders but not all genders.
    • Pansexual – Having sexual attraction to all genders.
    • Asexual – Applies to people who experience little to no sexual attraction. Is often listed as the “A” in the queer acronym LGBTQIA+.
  • Romantic Orientation – This is defined as “an individual’s pattern of romantic attraction based on a person’s gender(s) regardless of one’s sexual orientation.” Heteroromanticism, the attraction to a different gender than yourself, is not a main focus of this database as this usually involves a man and a woman, which is the traditional and privileged romantic orientation in much of the world. Several sub-categories are included:
    • Homoromantic – Having romantic attraction to your own gender. Selected when a paper specifically mentions “homoromantic” people or when mentioning “gay” or “lesbian” people.
    • Biromantic – Having romantic attraction to your own gender and another gender. Can also mean romantic attraction to men and women specifically regardless of your own gender, or romantic attraction to two genders other than your own. Selected when a paper mentions “biromantic” people or when mentioning someone who has been in relationships/partnerships with members of two genders.
    • Polyromantic – Having romantic attraction to your more than one gender. This is sometimes used to mean romantic attraction to two genders that are not the same as yours, or to mean romantic attraction to three or more genders but not all genders. Selected when a paper explicitly mentions “polyromantic” people.
    • Panromantic – Having romantic attraction to all genders. Selected when a paper explicitly mentions “panromantic” people.
    • Aromantic – Applies to people who experience little to no romantic attraction. Selected when a paper explicitly mentions “aromantic” people.
  • Queer – An umbrella term that encompasses everyone in the LGBTQIA+ community, or anyone outside of the heterosexual, cisgender norm. This, therefore, does not always apply to a sexual or romantic orientation.

Disability

This category includes papers, reports, articles, etc. related to disability. This category is very inclusive and is not limited to papers that specifically include the term “disability.” It includes any papers related to any medical disease, disorder, or impairment that significantly affects one’s ability to do major activities, even if those conditions are temporary or manageable. Note that I have included neurodivergent conditions such as Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).


Place of Origin & Native Language

Nationality/Citizenship & Native Language

This sub-category relates to diversity and inclusion issues regarding immigrants and non-native English speakers, as well as how D&I issues vary across countries.

Rural and/or Southern U.S.

This sub-category relates to individuals from rural and/or Southeastern areas of the United States. I have included this as a sub-category because rural communities may offer fewer educational and career resources, especially in STEM. And while the Southeastern United States is not completely rural, this region is highly conservative and Evangelical Christian, both of which can affect the quality and availability of STEM education.

Urban

This sub-category relates to individuals from urban areas. I have included this as a sub-category because urban areas are densely populated with diverse populations, which can alter the landscape of education, economic development, and social services.


Military

This category includes papers, reports, articles, etc. related to military service members, including both veterans and those currently enlisted or in training. This category is likely to be particularly in the general public and academic contexts. In a general public context, while military veterans in the U.S. actually have higher average incomes than non-veterans even when accounting for educational attainment, they often have difficulty readjusting to civilian life, and have high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, especially for veterans who are female and/or non-white.5 In an academic context, it could be important to consider the perspectives of service members, especially in STEM fields, as veterans make up approximately 3.7 percent of U.S. undergraduates, 20.6% of which declare STEM majors compared to 14.3% of non-veteran undergraduates.6 This is especially true for female veterans.7


Religion

This category includes papers, articles, reports, etc. related to religion. Below are the religious sub-categories I current have included in the database. Please feel free to let me know if you would like to see another religious group included.

  • Christianity – Defined as all churches and denominations that are based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, who they believe was the Messiah. This will include (not all-inclusive): Protestantism, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and nontrinitarian denominations such as Mormonism/the Latter Day Saints movement and Jehovah’s Witness.
  • Judaism – Defined as all movements that are to some extent based on the principles of the Hebrew Bible and its various commentaries. This will include (not all-inclusive): Orthodox Judaism, Reform Judaism, and Karaite Judaism.
  • Islam – Defined as all denominations that believe that Muhammad is the ultimate messenger of God. This will include (not all-inclusive): Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, the Ahmadiyya movement, and the Ibadi sect.
  • Hindusim – Includes the major denominations/traditions of Hinduism, such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
  • Buddhism – Defined as the traditions and spiritual practices based on the teachings attributed to the Buddha. Includes the major branches such as Mahayana Buddhism, Theravada Buddhism, and Vajrayana Buddhism.
  • Folk Religions – These can be hard to define because the local folk religions are often blended with aspects of major world religions, but they generally do not have formal creeds or sacred texts and are often closely associated with a specific group of people or tribe. This includes (non-inclusive): Taoism, Confucianism, and Voodoo / Vodou.
  • Atheism, Agnosticism, & No Affiliation – Includes all “irreligious” or “non-religious” groups, such as atheism (do not believe in the existence of any deities) and agnosticism (believe that the existence of any deities is unknowable).
  • Sikhism

Disadvantaged Background

This category is based off the NIH’s seven criteria that classify individuals as being from a “disadvantaged background.” However, my lists do not include rural areas in this category, as I felt that variable would fit more neatly in the “Place of Origin” category. I also added convicts to this list, and grouped the criteria regarding food insecurity, free lunch programs, and Pell grants into the “Low-Income” sub-category.

Low-Income

This sub-category relates to individuals of a lower socioeconomic status. This does not have a specific income cutoff, as your socioeconomic status in a given income bracket will depend on the cost of living in your area and the size of your household.

Parental Education/First-Generation Status

This sub-category relates to the highest level of education attained by one’s parent(s). By first-generation, I mean first-generation college students (usually at the undergraduate level but some papers may relate to the graduate level as well).

Foster Care & Homelessness

This sub-category includes individuals who were or are currently homeless or were/are experiencing housing insecurity, as well as those who were or currently are in the foster care system.

Convicts

This sub-category includes individuals convicted of a crime, including those who were or are incarcerated.


Educational Attainment

This includes papers related to one’s educational attainment (e.g. high school diploma, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, etc.).


Age

This category includes papers, articles, etc. related to age, usually older individuals. This may include material on general ageism, older students, or how age affects other D&I categories.


Personality

This category includes papers, reports, etc. regarding personality diversity. Usually, this will be introversion vs. extroversion, where introverts are expected to face more difficulties in education and the workplace than extroverts. Sometimes this will refer to all of the Big Five personality traits rather than just extraversion vs. introversion. This includes agreeableness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.


Family and Marital Status

This category includes papers, reports, etc. related to marital status and whether or not someone has children.

  • Childfree & Childless – This includes papers, reports, etc. on D&I issues related to people who choose not to have children (childfree) or cannot have children for whatever reason (childless).
  • With Children – This includes papers on D&I issues related to individuals with children.
  • Marital Status – This includes reports, papers, etc. related to one’s marital status. This usually will involve individuals who are married, widowed, divorced, or separated.

Guide to Searching

Demographic Variables

  • Disadvantaged Background – Select one or more of the four variables to narrow to papers related to those.
  • Race & Ethnicity – Select “General” to include papers that 1) speak of race & ethnicity broadly but do not relate to a specific race or ethnicity, and 2) papers that relate to any of the specific races or ethnicities included. Select any of the specific races or ethnicities if you’d like to narrow further instead.
  • Disability – Select the checkbox by “Disability” to narrow to papers related to disability.
  • Sex and Gender – Select one or more of the 18 variables to narrow to papers related to those.
  • Place of Origin and Language – Select one or more of the three variables to narrow to papers related to those.
  • Religion – Select “General” to include papers that 1) speak of religion broadly but do not relate to a specific religion, and 2) that relate to any of the specific religions included. Select any of the specific religions if you’d like to narrow further instead.
  • Age – Select the checkbox to narrow to papers related to age.
  • Sexual and Romantic Orientation – Select one of the 13 variables to narrow to one or both of the variables.
  • Educational Attainment – Select the checkbox to narrow to papers related to educational attainment.
  • Military Status – Select one or both of the two variables (“Veterans” and “Active Duty & Training”) to narrow to papers related to those.
  • Family and Marital Status – Select one or more of the three variables to narrow to papers related to those.
  • Personality – Select the checkbox to narrow to papers related to personality.

Context Variables

By “context,” I mean the general area/context that the topic of the paper, article, report, etc. falls within (e.g. academia/higher-ed or the general public). In the “Context” filter drop-down box, you can select one or more of the four contexts to filter through.

  • General Public – Select this to narrow to papers, articles, etc. related to diversity & inclusion issues within the general public (e.g. the whole population of the United States).
  • Academia / Higher Ed. – Select this to narrow to papers, articles, etc. related to diversity & inclusion in academia/higher education.
  • Non-Academic Workforce – Select this to narrow to papers, articles, etc. related to diversity in non-education workplaces.
  • K-12 Education – Select this to narrow to papers, articles, etc. related to diversity & inclusion in kindergarten-12th grade education (I’m also including preschool as well, but using the typical K-12 notation for simplicity). For those of you not in the United States, preschool would generally include students aged 4-5, and 12th grade would generally include students aged 17-18.

Field Variables

By field, I mean the field/discipline of study, research, and/or industry in a given context that the paper, report, etc. relates to (e.g. chemistry, finance, or sociology). Below you can find the main categories I’ve included, which sub-disciplines are within each category, and how to search for them.

Social Science

To determine which fields to include in the “Social Science” category, I used Florida State University (FSU)’s College of Social Sciences and Public Policy as a guide. In the “Social Science” drop-down filter box, select “General Social Science” if you’d like to narrow to papers, articles, etc. that 1) speak of social sciences broadly but do not relate to a specific social science field, or 2) that relate to any of the specific social science fields included.

Law

This category includes papers, articles, reports, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in legal fields, criminology, and criminal justice. Select the checkbox labeled “Law” to narrow to papers related to these fields.

Fine Arts

To determine which fields to include the in “Fine Arts” category, I combined the fields within FSU’s College of Fine Arts, College of Motion Picture Arts, and College of Music. In the “Fine Arts” drop-down filter box, select “General Fine Arts” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to fine arts broadly but do not relate to a specific fine art field, or 2) relate to any of the specific fine arts fields included.

  • Visual & Motion Picture Arts – Select “General Visual & Motion Picture Arts” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to visual & motion picture (MP) arts broadly but do not relate to a specific sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the specific visual & MP art sub-fields included.
  • Performance Arts – Select “General Performance Arts” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to performance arts broadly but do not relate to a specific performance art sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the specific performance art sub-fields included.
    • Dance – Includes papers related to dance or dance education.
    • Theatre – Includes papers related to theatre performance, production, and history.
    • Music – Includes papers related to music performance, composition, theory, and therapy.

STEM & Humanities

For STEM, as per the acronym, I included science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. To determine what sub-fields are considered “Science” or “Technology,” I used FSU’s College of Arts and Sciences as a guide. Under these guidelines, psychology and anthropology are included as sciences and not social sciences, and while computer science and scientific computing are considered technology, information technology will not be (see below). To determine which fields are considered “Humanities,” I once again used FSU’s College of Arts & Sciences as a guide, placing everything in the college that is not considered “Science” into “Humanities.” Finally, I have included “Medicine” as an independent field within this category. So, if you would like to view papers that broadly touch on STEM, Medicine, and Humanities, select “General STEM,” “Medicine,” and “General Humanities” in the “STEM & Humanities” drop-down filter box.

  • STEM – Select “General STEM” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to STEM broadly but do not relate to a specific STEM field, or 2) relate to any of the specific STEM fields included.
    • Science – Select “General Science” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to science broadly but do not relate to a specific science sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the specific science sub-fields included.
      • Biology – Select “General Biology” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to biology broadly but do not relate to a specific biology sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the specific biology sub-fields included. Papers related to biomedical research have been placed both in “General Biology” and in “Medicine.” Papers related to biochemistry or biophysics have been placed in both “General Biology” and “Chemistry” and both “General Biology” and “Physics,” respectively. Papers on biomedical engineering will be placed in “General Biology,” “Medicine,” and “Engineering.”
        • Ecology – This includes papers related to ecology. It may also include papers on environmental science, but this is often hard to differentiate from EOAS (see below). Therefore, I normally made the judgment on where to place environmental science papers based on the focus of the journal or institution that published the paper/article/report/etc.
        • Evolutionary Biology
        • Cellular & Molecular Biology
        • Neuroscience & Physiology
      • Chemistry – This includes papers, articles, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in chemistry. Papers related to biochemistry have been placed in both “General Biology” and “Chemistry.” Papers on chemical engineering will be placed in both “Chemistry” and “Engineering.”
      • Physics – This includes papers, articles, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in physics. Papers related to biophysics have been placed in both “General Biology” and “Physics.” Papers related to astrophysics are placed in both “Astronomy / Planetary Science” and “Physics”.
      • Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences (EOAS) – This includes papers, reports, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in EOAS (e.g. geology, oceanography, meteorology). It may also include papers on environmental science, but this is often hard to differentiate from ecology (see above). Therefore, I normally made the judgment on where to place environmental science papers based on the focus of the journal or institution that published the paper/article/report/etc.
      • Astronomy / Planetary Science – This includes papers related to diversity and inclusion in astronomy/planetary science. Papers related to astrophysics are placed in both “Astronomy / Planetary Science” and “Physics”.
      • Psychology – This includes papers related to diversity and inclusion in psychology. Papers related to any sort of psychological and/or psychiatric practice, even if not strictly “medical” (e.g. general counseling), have been placed in both “Psychology” and “Medicine.”
      • Anthropology
    • Technology – Select “General Technology” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to technology (tech) broadly but do not relate to a specific tech field, or 2) relate to any of the specific tech fields included.
      • Computer Science
      • Scientific Computing – This includes papers related to diversity and inclusion in scientific computing, such as morphometrics, fire dynamics, bioinformatics, or fluid dynamics.
    • Engineering – This includes papers related to diversity and inclusion in engineering fields, such as civil, mechanical, or electrical engineering. Papers on chemical engineering will be placed in both “Chemistry” and “Engineering.” Papers on biomedical engineering will be placed in “General Biology,” “Medicine,” and “Engineering.”
    • Mathematics & Statistics
  • Medicine – This includes diversity and inclusion papers related to all fields of healthcare and health research, such as surgery, psychiatry, immunology, biomedical research, or nursing. Papers related to biomedical research have been placed both in “General Biology” and in “Medicine.” Papers related to any sort of psychological and/or psychiatric practice, even if not strictly “medical” (e.g. general counseling), have been placed in both “Psychology” and “Medicine.” Papers on biomedical engineering will be placed in “General Biology,” “Medicine,” and “Engineering.”
  • Humanities – Select “General Humanities” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to humanities broadly but do not relate to a specific humanities field, or 2) relate to any of the specific humanities fields included.
    • Language – Select “General Language” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to languages broadly but do not relate to a specific language sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the specific language sub-fields included.
      • English – This includes all papers, reports, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in English, such as English literature, creative writing, editing, and education.
      • Modern Languages & Linguistics – This includes all papers, articles, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in modern language (e.g. Spanish, French, Hebrew, Russian, or Japanese) and linguistics.
    • History
    • Religion, Classics, & Philosophy – Select “General Religion, Classics, & Philosophy” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to the three sub-fields broadly but do not relate to a specific sub-field, or 2) relate to any of the three specific sub-fields included.
      • Religion / Theology
      • Classics – This includes papers, reports, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in classics such as Greek and Roman mythology.
      • Philosophy

Business, Communications, & IT

To determine which fields would be considered Business, Communications, or Information Technology (IT), I combined the fields within FSU’s College of Business and College of Communication and Information. Select “General Business, Communication, & Information Technology” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to business, communications, and IT broadly but do not relate to any specific fields within this category, or 2) relate to any of the specific business, communications, & IT fields included.

  • Business – Select “General Business” to narrow to papers, reports, etc. that 1) relate to business broadly but do not relate to any specific sub-fields within this field, or 2) relate to any of the specific business sub-fields included.
  • Communication – This includes papers, articles, etc. related to diversity and inclusion in communications, such as rhetoric and media production.
  • Information Technology – This includes papers related to diversity and inclusion in information sub-fields, such as web development, information security, or librarianship.

Sports and Games

This category includes K-12, college, and professional sports as well as professional/semi-professional games such as chess or eSports. Select “General Sports and Games” to narrow to papers, articles, etc. that 1) relate to sports and games broadly but do not relate to any specific fields within this category, or 2) relate to any of the specific sports or games included.


Type

For the table including books, movies, TV shows, and podcasts related to diversity and inclusion, the “Type” variable refers to what kind of media the the source is.

  • Books – Select “General Books” to narrow to all books.
    • Academic Books – Select this to narrow to academic books. By academic, I mean those published by a research institute or university. These could be targeted at adults or, less commonly, children.
    • Adult Books
    • Children’s Books – Select “Children’s Books” to narrow to all books for children. This includes teen books.
  • Documentaries – Select “General Documentaries” to narrow to all documentary films and TV shows.
    • Documentary Films – Select this to narrow to full-length and short films.
    • Documentary Series – Select this to narrow to TV shows and miniseries.
  • Hybrid Films – Select this to narrow to full-length and short films that are a mix of fiction and non-fiction (e.g. historical fiction).
  • Hybrid Series – Select this to narrow to TV shows and miniseries that are a mix of fiction and non-fiction.
  • Fiction – Select “General Fiction Films & Series” to narrow to all fiction films and TV shows.
    • Fiction Films – Select “General Fiction Films” to narrow to all fictional full-length and short films.
      • Adult Fiction Films
      • Children’s Fiction Films
    • Fiction Series – Select “Fiction Series” to narrow to all fictional TV shows and miniseries.

Information on Column Headings

Papers & Reports

  • Author(s) – Last name(s) of the author(s) of the paper or report.
  • Year – Year of publication.
  • Title – Title of the article or report.
  • Journal / Research Institute – Name of the journal the article was published in or the research institute that conducted the report.
  • Volume – For most journal papers, this will be the journal volume number the article was published in. For reports made by research institutes, this will normally be blank, the month of publication, or a project group ID.
  • Issue – The issue number of the volume the journal article was published in. This will normally be blank for reports conducted by research institutes.
  • Article Identifier – For journal articles, this will usually be page numbers or an ID number such as “ar14” or “e0230312.” For reports published by research institutes, this may be a small URL (such as a tinyURL or bit.ly), an ISBN number, project ID number, or left blank. For either journal articles or institute reports, this may be a DOI rather than a URL, an ISBN number, page numbers, or other article ID.
  • Link – This column contains a button that, when clicked, will open a new tab with the web page the article was found at.

Miscellaneous Articles and Presentations

  • Author(s) – Last name(s) of the author(s) of the article.
  • Year – Year of publication.
  • Title – Title of the article, fact sheet, etc.
  • Website / Institution / Periodical / Location – The website, periodical, or institute/foundation/university/etc. that published the article, infographic, fact sheet, etc. or where the presentation was given.
  • Link – This column contains a button that, when clicked, will open a new tab with the web page where the article or presentation was found at.
  • Plus Sign – Click the plus sign to the right of the “Link” column to see the volume, edition, and/or page numbers of the article (if published in a periodical) and/or the ISBN or DOI of the article or presentation if there is one.

Education Articles and Presentations

  • Author(s) – The last name(s) of the author(s) of the article or presentation.
  • Year – Year the article or presentation was published or that the presentation was presented.
  • Title – Title of the article or presentation.
  • Website / Institution / Periodical / Location – Source of the article or presentation, whether it be a website, a periodical, a conference or symposium, or institution.
  • Type – Type of article or presentation. This could be an article, an infographic or handout, a poster presentation, a PowerPoint presentation / slideshow, or conference proceedings.
  • Link – This column contains a button that, when clicked, will open a new tab with the web page where the article or presentation was found at.
  • Plus Sign – Click the plus sign to the right of the “Link” column to see the volume, edition, and/or page numbers of the article (if published in a periodical), and/or the DOI or ISBN of the article or presentation if there is one.

Books and Visual & Auditory Media

  • Credit #1 – This will depend on the media type. For:
    • movies, this will be the writer(s).
    • TV series, this will be the executive producer(s).
    • TV episodes, this will be the writer(s).
    • authored books, this will be the author(s).
    • books with only an editor or editors, this will be the editor(s).
    • podcasts and podcast episodes, this will be the artist(s) / host(s).
  • Credit #2 – This will also depend on the media type. For:
    • movies, this will be the director(s).
    • TV series, this will be the creator(s).
    • TV episodes, this will be the director(s).
    • illustrated books, this will be the illustrator(s).
    • non-illustrated books, this will be left blank.
    • podcasts, this will be left blank.
    • podcast episodes, this will be the name of the podcast series.
  • Year – Year of publication / release.
  • Title – The title of the book, movie, TV series, or podcast, or the title of the book chapter, TV episode, or podcast episode.
  • Publisher(s) or Production Company/Companies – Name of the publisher(s) or production company / companies.
  • Plus Sign – Click the plus sign to the right of the “Publisher(s) or Production Company/Companies” column to see either 1) the ISBN number or URL for books, 2) the places you can rent or buy the film or TV show (e.g. Netflix, Hulu, etc.) and/or the URL, or 3) the URL of the podcast.

Abbreviations

Many of the journal and institute names have been abbreviated. Here is a link to a Google Doc that lists all abbreviations used in my tables and what they stand for.


Trigger Warning Colors

You may notice that the title, author’s/authors’ name(s), and/or year of publication for certain table entries are highlighted with a particular color. These colors correspond to seven different warnings about potentially disturbing content in that paper, article, etc. I tried to cover major triggers while using colors that are accessible to colorblind people. Please let me know, however, if you’d like to see another trigger added. I am still in the process of tagging all papers for triggers, so please peruse at your own risk until further notice. The colors and their corresponding triggers are listed below. The colors are described in four ways: 1) A six-digit HEX code, 2) an rgb code, 3) a general descriptor of the color, and 4) the most similar Pantone shade.

  • #C24914 / rgb(194, 73, 20) / dark orange / 167 C – Sexual Misconduct, Adult (18+) Victim. This includes sexual harassment and sexual assault.
  • #F59000 / rgb(245, 144, 0) / light orange / 144 C – Physical Violence, Adult (18+) Victim. This includes descriptions of threats of physical assault, physical assault including non-sexual intimate partner violence, police brutality, genocide, and war-based violence.
  • #5C492E / rgb(92, 73, 46) / dark orange-brown / ~7553 C – Both Sexual Misconduct and Physical Violence, Adult (18+) Victim.
  • #47C993 / rgb(71, 201, 147) / seafoam green / ~7465 C – Child (<18) Abuse, Sexual and/or Physical.
  • #00F549 / rgb(0, 245, 73) / lime green / ~7481 C – Self-Harm and/or Suicide. This includes descriptions of ideation, attempts, or completed acts of self-injury or suicide.
  • #F6E551 / rgb(246, 229, 81) / light yellow / ~101 C – Substance use and/or abuse. This includes descriptions of alcohol consumption, alcoholism, marijuana use, the use and/or abuse of other drugs, and overdoses (descriptions of purposeful overdoses would also be tagged as “Self-Harm and/or Suicide”).
  • #327BA8 / rgb(50, 123, 168) / denim blue / ~653 C – Sexual and/or Physical Abuse of Both Children (<18) and Adults (18+).

References

  1. Hammer, M.F., A.J. Redd, E.T. Wood, M.R. Bonner, H. Jarjanazi, T. Karafet, S. Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. Oppenheim, M.A. Jobling, T. Jenkins, H. Oster, and B. Bonné-Tamir. 2000. Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y chromosome biallelic haplotypes. PNAS 97(12):6769-6774.
  2. Maynard Smith, J. 1978. The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge Uni. Press, Cambridge, England, UK.
  3. Miko, I. 2008. Sex chromosomes and sex determination. Nature Ed. 1(1):108.
  4. Wood, J.T. 1997. Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture (2nd edition). Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA, USA.
  5. Reisman, M. 2016. PTSD treatment for veterans: What’s working, what’s new, and what’s next. Pharm. & Therapeutics 41(10):623-634.
  6. National Center for Education Statistics. 2012. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). U.S. Dept. of Ed. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/npsas/.
  7. Steidl, C., R. Werum, S. Harcey, J. Absalon, and A. MillerMacPhee. 2020. Soldiers to scientists: Military service, gender, and STEM degree earning. Socius 6:1-11.